Development of Habitat Schools in India a report prepared for Human Settlements Management Institute

January 1989
Prepared for: 
Human Settlement Management Institute(HSMI), New Delhi & Ministry of Urban Development,Government Of India
Presented by: 
Sharma, SK, PSA Sundaram, K Dharmarajan, Mulkh Raj, J.R. Bhalla, TS Narayanaswamy, AG Krishna Menon, MN Ashish Ganju, Dr K. L. Nadir, and Michael Slingsby
Greha New Delhi, India

Formal outcome of the HUDCO-GREHA Proposal for Restructuring Technical Education to meet the requirements of Human Settlements Management Institute, designed to restructure Architectural Education which would have "provide(ed) Bachelors Courses in Habitat Planning, Habitat Management and Architecture, three year Diploma Course in Habitat Engineering and training in building skills with special emphasis on social aspects, low cost technologies and extension methods will promote a hierarchy of skills required for facilitating housing and human settlement development in a desirable manner."

Proposal for Restructuring Technical Education to meet the requirements of Human Settlements

There is urgent need for reorienting technical education to meet the requirements of housing and human settlements. The National Housing Policy makes a special mention of this. With a view to develop a comprehensive strategy, a Study Group under my chairmanship looked into the matter in all its dimensions and prepared this report. Eminent professionals from various disciplines participated in the Study Group.

A major recommendation of the Study Group is the concept of Habitat Schools which will provide Bachelors Courses in Habitat Planning, Habitat Management and Architecture, three year Diploma Course in Habitat Engineering and training in building skills with special emphasis on social aspects, low-cost technologies and extension methods will promote a hierarchy of skills required for facilitating housing and human settlement development in a desirable manner.

It is hoped that this report will provide a meaningful basis for restructuring technical education in the country to meet the requirements of housing and human settlements.

Excerpts from the National Housing Policy adopted by the Government of India in May, 1988.

13. Housing and Development Agencies
Housing should cater to the needs, preferences and affordability of different households. Designing of such houses and ensuring economy and quality in their construction is best achieved through greater user-involvement.

13.1 Housing agencies and area development authorities in the public sector will, therefore, be reoriented to act more as promoters and facilitators of housing activity rather than builders of housing units. They will play an increasing role in:

(a) development and supply of serviced land;
(b) distribution of building materials and components at reasonable rates;
(c) provision of technical and advisory services; and
(d) development and extension of appropriate construction technology

13.2 To enable these agencies and authorities to perform their new role effectively and efficiently, they will be suitably restructured. Their planning approaches, personnel policies and management systems will be modified to improve their work ethos and made them more responsive to the needs of the people.

13.3 The planning and design standards of these agencies and authorities will be modified to suit local conditions and requirements.

14.Human Resources

14.1 Human resource plays a vital role in the housing sector. Housing and development planners, administrators, architects, engineers and social, health and urban community development workers will be sensitised to achieve the objective of providing shelter to the weaker sections. They will also be encouraged to adopt cost-effective and innovative designs, approaches and strategies.

14.2 The curricula of engineering and architectural colleges and other technical education institutions will be suitably reoriented to promote architecture relevant to the Indian life style and needs of the community. Programmes will be devised to improve the skills and capability of construction workers, artisans and petty contractors. Appropriate technology will be evolved and its use encouraged with a view to increasing productivity. For this purpose, formal and non-formal training facilities will be strengthened and provided on a decentralized basis at the regional, district and taluka levels.

14.3 Programmes to bring about improvement in the employment and working conditions of construction workers will be formulated and implemented.

14.4. Special efforts will be made to upgrade the skills and approve the working conditions of women construction workers.

14.5 Greater involvement of non-governmental organisations in the training of construction workers, both in the formal and informal sectors, will be promoted.

14.6 Non-formal training will also be provided to facilitate maintenance and improvement of housing stock on a self-help basis.


The Study Group studied the types of skills required for dealing with the complex requirements of human settlements and the technical education, both formal and informal, needed for developing them. This is a vital area for State action and though it may not provide immediate solutions, it can create a major impact on housing and human settlement development in the right perspective. If immediate attention is not given we may be woefully short of skills for meaningfully dealing with housing and human settlement issues in the upcoming years.

The Study Group noted the relevant observations made in the National Housing Policy document. The National Housing Policy speaks of reorienting housing and development authorities to act as facilitators and promoters rather than builders of housing and restructuring planning approaches, personnel policies and management systems to make them more responsive to the needs of the people. The National Housing Policy also speaks of reorienting the curricula of technical education institutions to promote architecture relevant to the Indian life style and needs of the community and devise programmes to improve construction skills through formal and non-formal training on a decentralised basis.

The Task Force on Housing and Urban Development set up by the Planning Commission in its report submitted way back in Sept. 1983 had made the following pertinent observations:

1. That despite distinct shift of emphasis in the 5th and 6th Plan documents from housing to site and services and self help programmes, there is no evidence that this has actually happened.

2. The bulk of the housing is supplied by private initiative in a variety of ways. This is so even in cities like Delhi where public agencies have a formidable set up for construction.

3. The Task Force noted with concern that in spite of policy commitments to self help housing by the poor, Government sponsored construction housing agencies continue to proliferate. These agencies almost universally are patterned on the bureaucratic model and adopt a rigid brick and mortar approach to housing.

4. The Task Force considers a drastic change in the orientation of all public agencies like Housing Boards engaged in shelter as essential pre-requisite to expanding scope of housing programmes for the poor. The brick and mortar approach is totally unsuited to the problem of masses of shelter less poor.

The situation remain more or less the same today. Improvement is possible only if necessary organizational and attitudinal changes are brought about in the State agencies. These organizations, however, dominated as they are by engineer-builders who know only the ‘brick and mortar approach’ continue to function as construction organizations. Moreover, new Urban Development and Housing Authorities structured as construction organizations, continue to proliferate. It is indeed anomalous to first employ builders and then ask them not to build but to facilitate!

Another problem with the engineer-builders is that they know how to build but do not know what to build. The disciplines which can define what to build and which by training are also better equipped to facilitate, are planners and architects. The curricula of these disciplines are multi-disciplinary providing for planning, designing, building technologies, building systems, history, sociology, rural ecology and other social sciences. It is significant to observe that architectural students take up slum upgrading, inner city improvement and rural housing projects as school whereas civil engineering students do no such thing. There may be some deficiencies in the present curricula of the planners and architects, but this can be rectified by providing greater emphasis on low cost technologies, social issues and extension work than at present.

The more important issue however, in whether we are producing enough planners and architects to meet the requirements of the human settlements.

Shortage of Planners & Architects

One major problem which the country will face in the coming years is in regard to non availability of the right type of professionals for dealing with human settlement issues. At present the various technical institutions in the country, just about 700 architects and town planners graduated every year. Unfortunately, these disciplines are not adequately recognized in public management as a result of which the number of posts in public organizations are far less than needed. Even then, a large number of the posts in most Government organizations are vacant due to non availability of persons of these disciplines. A survey of training needs for the human settlement sector in India, recently conducted by a team sponsored by the Overseas Development Agency of UK, revealed that there are 50 engineers to every architect and over 130 to every planner in India. Further, though most housing agencies have inadequate architectural and planning staff, 34 per cent of posts of architects and 50 per cent of the posts of planners are vacant.

Most students graduated from the educational institutions in these disciplines get absorbed in metropolitan cities leaving few for public agencies and small towns. Rural areas have practically no planning input. These disciplines due to their concentration in large cities tend to be looked upon as elitist. The only way to correct this imbalance is to substantially step up the intake of students in these disciplines so that they may proliferate into the countryside. While doing so, the curricula can be reviewed to provide for greater emphasis on social architecture, low-cost technologies and extension methods.

Scope of Civil Engineering

It appears that a much larger number of civil engineers are graduating from our universities than required. On the assumption that civil engineering is a general purpose discipline, the Directorate of Technical Education has been promoting this discipline in every technical education institution. At present, nearly 10,000 civil engineers are being turned out every year. This over production of civil engineers has now created a serious situation which is evident from the fact that (a) students are not opting for civil engineering resulting in seats being vacant, (b) students passing out in civil engineering are not getting jobs and (c) those already in public institutions which are their largest employers, are getting frustrated due to lack of promotion opportunities. Explaining why half the seats in civil engineering were vacant in his institution, Director, Karunya Educational Trust, Coimbatore wrote to CMD HUDCO.

“I fully agree with you that by producing civil engineers we are misdirecting our energy. We had no choice in this aspect because when the Government granted us permission to run the Institute of Technology, this branch of Engineering was forced on us much against our wish.
We are deeply interested in setting up a Habitat School which obviously is the need of the hour in this country. We will take up this matter with the Government of Tamil Nadu and the Director of Technical Education at Madras and find out from them as to how we can best introduce these disciplines which are oriented towards our social issues.”

Today, even M Tech (Civil Engineering) from IITs are soliciting for jobs. Whenever a few posts are advertised, a large number of unemployed civil engineers apply. Furthermore, those already in Government have very poor promotion chances. Thus over production and over recruitment have resulted in the civil engineers coming in the way of each other. Further, it is obvious that Civil Engineers are being called upon to handle jobs for which they are not trained.

Concept of Habitat School

In order to produce the right type of professionals for dealing with human settlement issues, a concept of Habitat Schools has been evolved. The Habitat School will comprehensively deal with habitat issues with the right type of social bias and will have vertical integration from degree courses to construction skills. Essentially, the Habitat School will provide for the following courses:

  1. Bachelors in Habitat Planning with emphasis on settlement and neighbourhood planning keeping in view local living patterns.
  2. Bachelors in Habitat Management covering project, maintenance, infrastructure sanitation and general management.
  3. Bachelors in Architecture with emphasis on social issues, technology options and extension work.
  4. Three Year Diploma Course in Habitat Engineering providing for combination of technical and extension skills. This will be after higher secondary 910 + 2) in the science steam.
  5. Training of artisans and small contractors in low-cost construction systems which will also be laboratory work for graduate and diploma students.

The three year Diploma Course in Habitat Engineering will be treated as a foundation course for graduate studies. After the three year diploma course, the students would be required to do at least one year field work. Based on the performance in the diploma course and field work, the students would be selected for two year advanced studies in planning, management or architecture leading to Bachelors Degree in Habitat Planning, Habitat Management or Architecture.

Since the success of various programmes largely depends on how well they are managed, the graduate studies in habitat management will be of strategic importance. These graduates will be best suited for appointment as Municipal Officers, Housing Managers Project Managers, etc.
Diploma holders of the Habitat School whose slow aptitude for technology can along with the Diploma holder in Civil Engineering take AMIE examinations. Such integrated studies can bring about greater cohesion and understanding between the various disciplines.

Action Plan

It is felt that the professional manpower needs for human settlements for the next few decades require to be properly reassessed and education oriented to support them. However, the gap is so large that without waiting for further studies, some steps can be immediately taken. Action on the following lines needs immediate consideration.

  1. Government should immediately set up at least ten Habitat Schools in different parts of the country. Priority may be given to States like Rajastahan, Bihar, Orissa, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, North Eastern States, etc in which planning and architecture are not being taught at all and Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, etc. where there is no School of Planning & Architecture but a few seats have been provided in the Engineering Colleges.
  2. The course in civil engineering in some institutions may be replaced by course in planning and architecture. The problem of faculty and other logistic problems will have to be sorted out. This may be relatively less difficult in institutions in which both civil engineering and architecture are presently being taught.
  3. Diploma course in Habitat Engineering providing for both technical and extension education be introduced in all Polytechnics.
  4. The course of Architectural Assistant in Polytechnics be expanded and given a field orientation so that they are available for working on projects especially socially oriented projects. The course of Architectural Draftsman should be re-designated as course of Architectural Assistant with field orientation.
  5. Building Centres which will function as laboratories for the diploma students and provide training for artisans be set up in very polytechnic.
  6. Just as IIT/IIMs were established in collaboration with foreign universities, efforts should be made to establish collaboration of the proposed Habitat Schools with foreign universities which have specialized in Third World human settlement problems.
  7. Close relations should be established between the educational institutions and State authorities. It should be made incumbent on every State agency concerned with human settlements to entrust a few projects to the Schools of Planning and Architecture and Habitat Schools.
  8. The Habitat Engineers from the Habitat Schools should be engaged by public authorities especially Slum Boards, and by professional firms and developers on contract basis against super numeracy posts to provide them the necessary practical training to enable them to go in for the advanced studies. The Habitat School should have a placement office to assist the students to get suitable placement.
  9. A large number of posts of architects and planners in public organizations are vacant. Recruitment procedures take several years by which time the candidates get absorbed elsewhere. Recruitment of architects and planners should be taken out of the preview of the Public Service Commissions and the agencies allowed to recruit through their own recruitment procedures themselves. Rigid recruitment procedures are required when there are more jobs seekers than jobs, not when there is acute shortage. This should be accompanied by a review of the existing recruitment rules and organizational structures of public agencies to facilitate intake of the students turned out by the various Habitat Schools in different States.
  10. One major problem likely to be face is in regard to faculty. Since there is an acute shortage of planners and architects and the few that are there, are largely in the metropolitan cities, it will be difficult to get good faculty for the proposed institutions. Appropriate incentives should be given to full time faculty and greater use should be made of visiting faculty as are done in institutions like School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi and Ahmedabad.

Initiatives by HUDCO

The Ministry of Urban Development and HUDCO have launched a national programme of setting up a network of Building Centres for training of artisans in construction skills. At present there is no institutional arrangement for training of artisans, especially masons. The Industrial Training Institutes do not reach them as they do not fulfil their minimum qualification requirements. There has been substantial increase in construction activity throwing up demand for a large number of building artisans. To meet this demand, unskilled workers who pick up some work at the site, start calling themselves masons resulting in poor workmanship and wastage of materials. Furthermore, they have no exposure to low cost technologies which economize on materials. This is the prime reason why such technologies have not been widely adopted. The proposed network of Building Centres will function as training cum production centres thus fulfilling an important need. The better educated and entrepreneurial artisans will be trained as small contractors who will manage a group of workers and assist the people especially the poor, to build houses suiting their needs.

With a view to promote habitat studies, HUDCO established in 1985 its Human Settlement Management Institute providing in service training for housing managers and other professionals. This year, it has, in collaboration with the Slum Wing DDA, established a Habitat Polytechnic as an adjunct to the Building Centre set up in Nizamuddin New Delhi. The Habitat Polytechnic will provide three year diploma course in Habitat Engineering.

HUDCO has initiated dialogue with some educational trusts for setting up full-fledged Habitat Schools which will provide for the entire range of instructions from graduate studies to construction skills. The response has been encouraging. HUDCO has engaged a group of professionals to develop the curricula for such Habitat Schools.

Urgent consideration by the Planning Commission, Ministry of Urban Development Ministry of Education and the Directorate of Technical Education is required in order to realize the objectives of the National Housing Policy.

Notes on meeting of 23rd July 1986 at Sammelan Kaksha, HUDCO :

Notes on meeting of 23rd July 1986 at Sammelan Kaksha, HUDCO

  1. Built Space to Enable Start of Architecture Course by IST Oct. 86
  • Space should be acquired for minimum of 2 years requirement – say 5000 sq. ft.
  • Central accessible location essential in view of role envisaged for the school.
  • INTACH is ready to provide Rs. 2.4 lakhs for rental over 2 years.
  • Survey of VHAI, Institutional areas at Lodi Estate and Rouse Avenue, Shri Ram centre, to be carried out over the next 10 days.
  • Mr. Bhalla to consult L.C. regarding possibility of using College of Art premises on a temporary basis.
  • General opinion was that if 1st Oct. is important then a lease agreement with private/autonomous body is more feasible than an arrangement though Govt. agencies.
  • Otherwise space is available in a number of locations for which investigations could be made.
  • I.P. Stadium, Nehru Stadium, hutments in various areas, Asiad Village, College of Art.
  • HUDCO would investigate possibility of purchasing two flats at Asiad Village for renting cut to GREHA.

Land for Permanent Location of School

  • Application to be made to DDA for institutional land in a central location.
  • Approx 100 acres are available in Ghaziabad with the Ministry of Urban Development – application may be made for land, close to the Administrative Staff Training College.


  • Running expenses for first semester are approx Rs. 4.0 lakhs.
  • Approximately Rs. 10-12 lakhs per annum would be the running costs for first two years.
  • INTACH has offered Rs. 2.4 lakhs over two years.
  • Applications have been made to Hinduja Foundation and Inlaks.
  • Funding sources may be many – Foundations, Govt. Institutions, construction industry and donation/subscription from professionals etc. Each has its potential as well as implications for the running of the school.
  • Long-term funding needs ‘professional’ planning. Mr. Martand Singh will suggest the right person for the task.
  • In the context of overwhelming demand for additional schools of architecture it was suggested that the Council of Architecture could initiate setting up and financing architecture schools.
  • Contradictions regarding funding:
  1. Once an institution starts functioning it is easier for funds to be solicited.
  2. It would be irresponsible to make commitments to students without an assured financial support for at least the first two years – Say Rs. 20 lakhs.

Industry, Institutions would be prepared to support school by way of sponsorship of students and paying faculty costs etc. but such programmes would be required to fulfil specific training needs of these institutions. This suggests special or post graduate training courses rather than an undergraduate course.

New School of Design
Meeting at Sammelan Kaksha – 23rd July 1986
Present: K.L. Nadir, Ritu Menon, Rupen Majumdar, Kamma Batra, A.P. Kanvinde, Mahendra Raj, Raj Rewal, Ranjit Sabhiki, B.B. Chaudhry, Dharmendra Deo, Ramu Katakam, J.R. Bhalla, Santhosh Sharma, Mulkh Raj, Ashish Ganju, Ashok Lall, Ali Bacquer, Martand Singh, V. Sidharth

Employment Potential

The architectural profession is subject to a rapidly changing scenario at all levels. In this respect the architectural profession is not in a unique position amongst the professions as a whole. The speed and complexity of the development process at the national level has evoke a variety of new challenges and requirements. As the profession gears itself to face the challenges and meet the new requirements, it must first build up its own cadre of skilled workers.

As result, a very serious demand for appropriately trained architects has surfaced within the profession. Architects are needed at all levels of the development process. The greatest potential for employment still remains with the public sector, government agencies as well as public sector corporations. However, the private sector is increasingly finding an expanding role in development works, both at the formal and informal levels, thus generating a very large employment potential for appropriately trained architects.

Since the conditions obtaining in our country are often similar to conditions in many other third world countries, it is anticipated that the course would attract students from these other countries, and the products of this school would find a productive and prominent place in the profession all over the third world.

Course Objectives

The course of architectural study will develop a basic grounding in fundamental and timeless principles of architecture, which emerge out of a philosophic, cultural, and scientific value frame, and will further focus on three major areas:

  • The development of awareness of techno-cultural factors which determine the limits of the architectural problem.
  • The comprehension and anticipation of the institutional forces which define the ground on which executive decisions can be framed, and
  • The scientific and technical expertise required for the design and management of building projects.

Within these broad parameters the details of courses of study will be organised to provide:

  1. A five-year full time course, leading to a Bachelors Degree in Architecture.
  2. Short duration part-time refresher courses for professional re-training in various specialisations.
  3. Two-year full time postgraduate courses in specialised areas, leading to a Masters Degree in Architecture.

Entering Behaviours

  1. For the five-year degree course, candidates to be admitted shall have a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate, having passed the 10 + 2 examination of the Senior School Certificate Examination Scheme, with Mathematics and English as subjects of examinations at the 10 + 2 level.All candidates for the above course shall be selected on the basis of a specially designed competitive examination which will include an aptitude test. There shall also be an interview for the candidates successful in the competitive examination before the final selection is made.
  2. For the part-time Technical courses, the candidates will be selected on the basis of depth interviews and detailed examination of technical service record.
  3. For the post-graduate courses, the candidates will be selected on the basis of specially designed competitive examinations as well as depth interviews of the candi dates successful in the competitive examination.
    The intake of students at the first year level of the Degree course shall not exceed for each a maximum of 30 in a class. For the Certificate courses and the postgraduate courses the intake shall not exceed for each a maximum of 15 in a class.
    Students will be permitted, at the discretion of the school authorities, to migrate from one recognised institution to another, subject to the maximum number of students not exceeding the permitted maximum intake in a class.

Activities/Analysis of Tasks-knowledge, skills, attitudes/traits.

In order to satisfy the wide range of employment potential, and to meet the complex requirements of the development of the profession as a whole, the tasks for which the students are to be equipped would need to be diverse.

The knowledges base which must essentially be developed in the student would start with a grounding in philosophy (aesthetics and ethics within an environmental perspective) consistent with the traditions, indigenous technologies, and social and economic needs of the people, especially the poor in rural and urban areas.

The skills to be developed would focus on the language of architecture, starting with basic communication skills including drawing, graphics, audio-visual techniques, mapping of various kinds, and technical paper writing and presentation. These skills would be built up around the core of studies comprising history and theory of architecture, architectural design, theory and design of structures and building services, and essential principles of human settlements including ecological planning, landscape design and the processes of urbanisation. Skill formation would be supplemented by explorations and development of the craft of building through workshop exercises as well as fieldwork research with the building industry.

The formation of appropriate attitudes and traits would be fostered by developing the students' capacity for self-awareness, leading to a reinforcement of basic human skills of expression and communication, and consolidating the students comprehension of his/her place and rule in the profession and in society.  

Duration and Stages of the course

  1. The architecture degree course shall be of a minimum duration of 5 academic years or 10 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each, inclusive of six months/one semester of approximately 16 working weeks of practical training (after the first stage) in a professional office. The course shall be conducted in two stages—the first 3 academic years/6 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each of the course shall be a basic standard course and will constitute the first stage. Candidates admitted to the course shall have to complete the first stage within 5 years of admission to the course. The second stage of the course shall be of 2 academic years/4 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each. The successful completion of both stage of the course shall qualify candidates for registration under the Architects Act, 1972.
  2. The short duration professional retraining courses shall be of variable duration according to specific needs.
  3. The postgraduate masters courses shall be of a minimum duration of 1½ years/3 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each. The detailed design of these courses is to be taken up later.

Curriculum Design/Course Content/Subjects of Study:

Stage I – Basic Course. Subjects of Examination Minimum No. of periods of 50 to 60 minutes duration

  1. Architectural Design [ 800 ] 
    Applying the knowledge gained in other subjects and to design buildings of medium complexity e.g. Schools, Colleges, Dispensaries, Shops and Houses, etc. and present them in graphic form.
  2. Building Construction [ 400 ]
    Knowledge of various methods of building construction of medium complexity with timber, stone, bricks, concrete etc. including foundation, walls, roofs, staircase, joinery and finishes.
  3. Building Materials and Sciences [ 120 ]
    Knowledge of basic building materials and their behaviour such as bricks, stones, metals and timber and finishing materials, effects of climate on built environment to be able to design for comfortable conditions.
  4. Architectural Drawing and Graphics [ 360 ]
    Ability to present in graphic form all elements of design—study of shades and shadows, textures, tones, colours, geometrical form, perspectives and projections, free hand drawing and rendering.
  5. History of Architecture [ 180 ]
    Study of various styles of Architecture and methods of construction through the ages in the world with emphasis on Indian Architecture.
  6. Workshop Practice [120 ]
    Ability to make building models with various materials such as cardboard, wood, plastics, plaster of Paris and metals.
    Ability to make simple joints in timber, pipes and other materials.
  7. Landscape Design [ 90 ]
    Understanding of Landscape elements like trees, shrubs, plants, water, rocks and development of landscapes planning and application in architectural design.
  8. Structural Mechanics and Theory of Structures [ 300 ]
    Understanding the structural concepts and behaviour of structural elements, simple calculations for columns, beams, frames, footings, slabs, walls in concrete, steel, timber.
  9. Surveying and Levelling [ 60 ]
    Understanding of various survey and levelling instruments, carrying out surveys of land of medium complexity and preparation of survey plans.
  10. Building Services & Equipment [ 150 ]
    Study of and designing for water supply, drainage, sewage disposal, electricity supply, wiring and lighting for buildings.
  11. Humanities [ 120 ]
    Study of sociology, economics and anthropology, as applicable for design of human settlements.
  12. Estimating and Costing [ 60 ]
    Systems of taking out quantities and estimating for all traces involved in construction of medium complexity.
  13. Principles of Human Settlements [120 ]
    Man and environment biological and behavioural responses to human settlements; design for living, natural and built-environment. Ancient texts and treatises on settlement and area planning in India. Human settlements during ancient medieval and modern periods in India, Europe and other parts of the world.

Stage II: Subjects of Examination Minimum No. of periods of 50 to 60 minutes duration.

Brief Description of the Subjects Listed in the Second stage of the Course.

  1. Architectural Design, Planning and Thesis [ 650 ] 
    Design of complex buildings and campuses involving analytical studies of buildings and spaces from sociological, economic and cultural points of view such a Universities,
    Industrial Estates, Housing Schemes etc. Thesis on a subject requiring detailed analytical study to lay down validity and design criteria presented in graphic form, models and report. Thesis may also be on research projects presented as a written report.
  2. Building Construction, Materials and Specifications [ 250 ]
    Study of advanced building construction methods with new materials such as plastics, metals, synthetic boards and latest techniques in the use of concrete.
  3. Building Sciences & Services [ 120 ]
    Study of Acoustics, Air-Conditioning, Heating, Cooling, Mechanical installations,
    Fire-Control, water supply and drainage system for complex buildings.
  4. Human Settlements (Theory) [ 120 ]
    An advanced course on Human Settlements principles and theory as they have evolved through the ages.

Professional Practice[ 90 ]

  1. The examination in professional practice in design to assess the knowledge, skill and maturity which fit the architect to fulfil his professional duties and his understanding of the management of office organisation and building contracts. The syllabus should cover the following areas of study:
    •  General principles of Indian Contract Act; Building Contracts generally, conditions and forms of contract, administration of contracts, Principles of arbitration, Indian Arbitration Act, 1940, Valuation of properties, architectural competitions; Easements of properties; Report writing;
    • Codes of Practice; Conditions of Engagement; duties and responsibilities of an architect in relation to owner, contractor, related professional and public; Indian Standards & Codes of Practice. (Planning and Building Legislation etc. has been omitted because this is covered under Building Bye-laws—item 6).
  2. Building Bye-laws [ 15 ]
    Study of building regulations to enable to design and prepare drawings for submission to concerned bodies.
  3. Structural Systems [ 45 ]
    Principles and theory of structural design and study of structural technology such as space frames, pre-stressing, shells and understanding of the limitations and scope of these techniques. Calculations for these techniques are not expected.
  4. Electives such as[ 150 ] 
    Intensive study of one or more of the subjects offered as electives depending upon the expertise available to an institution. The list of the subjects may be enlarged but they shall be related to Architecture, such as Housing, Urban Design, Interior Design, Building Management, Landscape Design and Urban Planning.

Teaching Methodology

The teaching of architecture has always been an extension of the apprenticeship model. Thus the students shall receive the major part of their training in the design studio. This would be reinforced by lectures, tutorials, seminars, educational tours, and visits to place of architectural interest.


The architecture school shall be part of the Delhi School of Design, and shall share space as well as facilities with the mother institution while maintaining its own distinct identity.

  1. Space—the building for the school shall have a floor area of 15 sq. m. per student. This will include classrooms and one studio per year of the course, space, for faculty members, specialised library, workshop, materials museum, art studio, audio-visual laboratory, experimental building yard, exhibition space, seminar/conference rooms, office accommodation, and lounges for students and staff. Residential accommodation, having a floor area of 10 sq. m. per student, shall be provided for at least 50% of the students, in equal proportions for males and females.
    The general library and facilities for extra-curricular activities and sports shall be common with the mother institution.
  2. Equipment—furniture shall be provided in the building, including specialised items like drawing tables and lockers in the studios. The technical equipment in the workshop, laboratory and the experimental building yard shall also be provided especially to include craft tools for woodwork and metal work, still camera, film developing and printing equipment, video equipment, photo-copying machine and duplicating equipment, simple computing equipment, and other specialised requirements of the architecture school.
    For highly specialised equipment for materials testing, sophisticated computer hardware and software an arrangement shall be made with the Indian Institute of Technology and other institutions for sharing their facilities.
  3. Industrial material—this will be required, but in small quantities, for experimental building and for workshop practice.
    The library, workshop, laboratory, and experimental building yard shall be managed by professionally trained and qualified staff, with adequate supporting staff, to assist the students and faculty members in their academic programmes.


The school shall have a staff structure consisting of the following:

  1. Principal Head of Department and Professors, Asst. Professors/Readers and Lecturers in the ratio of 1: 2: 2.
  2. The school shall recruit qualified persons in the field of Engineering/Qty. Surveying/Art/ Humanities depending on the actual requirements against the total sanctioned strength.
  3. The equivalent qualification shall mean any such qualification as recognised by the Council of Architecture for registration as an architect under section 25 of the Architects Act, 1972

The architecture school shall maintain a teacher/student ratio of 1: 8; that is, it shall have minimum number of 12 faculty members for a student strength of 100.

The school shall encourage the faculty members to involve themselves in professional practice, including research and development work/community work.

The school shall encourage exchange of faculty members with other institutions of similar nature, in order to improve and enrich its academic programmes. The school shall have the faculty pattern as prescribed by the Council of Architecture, as shown in the statement below:

  1. Lecturer
    Rs. 700-40-1100-50-1600
    Bachelor’s Degree in Architecture or equivalent plus two years of relevant
    professional experience.
    Master’s Degree in Architecture or equivalent and one year relevant professional experience. If a candidate does not possess a Master’s Degree in Architecture and professional experience or a person possessing such experience is not found suitable, the person appointed will be required to obtain the desired professional experience within a period of five years on his appointment failing which he will not be able to earn future increment unit until he fulfils this requirement.
  2. Reader/Asst. Professor
    Rs. 1200-50-1300-60-1900 
    B. Arch. or equivalent with 7 years experience in Teaching/Research/Professional Work.
    M. Arch. or equivalent with 5 years experience in Teaching/Professional Work.
  3. Professor
    Rs. 1500-60-1800- 2000-125/2-2500
    B. Arch. or equivalent with 10 years of experience in Teaching/Research Work. Experience of guiding research.
    M. Arch. or equivalent with 8 years experience in Teaching/Research/Professional work.
  4. Principal/Head of Department 
    Rs. 1500-60-1800-200- 125/2-2500 
    B. Arch. or equivalent with 10 years experience in Teaching/Research/plus special pay Professional work. Experience of guiding research.
    M. Arch. or equivalent with 8 years of experience in Teaching/Research/Professional work.
  5. The school shall appoint Professor of Eminence.
  6. One third of the teaching load shall be allotted to the visiting faculty so that the students are brought in closer contact with the persons actively engaged in practice.


  1. Initially the norms laid down by the council of Architecture (Incorporated under the Architects Act, 1972) in its “Regulations on Undergraduate Architectural Education” shall be adopted, subject to the approval of the University of Delhi.

    These norms are:

    •   The University of Delhi, or an independent examining body approved by it, shall conduct the examinations at the end of each stage.
    •   The sessional work shall, as far as possible, be assessed by a jury of internal and external examiners.
    •   The weightage of marks for subjects having both class work marks as well as examination marks may not exceed the ratio of 50: 50.
    •   The pass percentage shall not be less that 45% in each subject and shall not be less than 50% in the aggregate.
    •   Candidates who have passed in the internal assessment, shall only be permitted to undertake an examination.
    •   An examiner for any of the subjects of examination shall have a minimum of 3 years teaching/professional experience in his/her field of study.
  2. There shall also be established a cell for curriculum and Evaluation System Development, which will design the pedagogic package specific to the needs of the profession in the context of the larger developmental perspective.

Integration of Allied Courses

Since the architecture school will be a part of the Delhi School of Design which will be running allied courses such as interior design, textile design, fashion design, graphic, and communications media, etc. there will be in-house integration of allied courses.

Furthermore the cell for Curriculum and Evaluation Systems Development shall establish ways and means of integrating allied courses in other institutions in Delhi and the rest of the country, as well as in appropriate institutions in other parts of the world.

Implementation of the Course

  1. Academic

    The school shall start its first year programme on an experimental basis to admit a maximum of 20 students in January 1986.

    By July 1986, the proper first year course shall be started with maximum of 30 students. Every subsequent year a class of maximum 30 students shall be admitted. By July 1990, the undergraduate course shall have a maximum of 150 students (20 students of the experimental first class having passed out in January 1990), with an additional maximum number of 50 students in the post-graduate courses and part-time courses. Thus the maximum student strength of the school in July 1990 shall be 200.

    The staff strength shall be built up progressively, as per the norm prescribed in item 9 (Faculty), and in relation to the student intake described above. Thus in July 1990 the maximum Staff strength shall be 25.

    Necessary support staff, both technical and administrative, shall also be progressively built up as the student strength increases.

  2. Financial

    As per the standards laid down in item 8 (Resources), the preliminary calculation of financial requirements works out as follows:
    (financial requirements omitted from this transcription)

  3. Administration

    The Chairman of the Vocational Education Society shall be the ex-officio Director of the Delhi School of Design.

    The architecture school forming part of the Delhi School of Design shall be run by the Principal who will be a full-time Professor of Architecture. The Principal shall set up the school with the help of appropriate faculty and supporting staff as per the norms, as well as standards laid down in the preceding items which are based on the “Regulations on Undergraduate Architectural Education” of the Council of Architecture (incorporated under the Architects Act, 1972.

GREHA “Habitat Schools” Curriculum ,1990: at the TVB School of Habitat Studies

Formal outcome of the HUDCO-GREHA Proposal for Restructuring Technical Education to meet the requirements of Human Settlements, designed to restructure Architectural Education which would have "provide(ed) Bachelors Courses in Habitat Planning, Habitat Management and Architecture, three year Diploma Course in Habitat Engineering and training in building skills with special emphasis on social aspects, low cost technologies and extension methods will promote a hierarchy of skills required for facilitating housing and human settlement development in a desirable manner."