Curriculum Development for Habitat Schools

January 1989

With a view to promote habitat studies, HUDCO established in 1985 its Human Settlement Management Institute providing in service training for housing managers and other professionals. This year, it has, in collaboration with the Slum Wing DDA, established a Habitat Polytechnic as an adjunct to the Building Centre set up in Nizamuddin New Delhi. The Habitat Polytechnic will provide three year diploma course in Habitat Engineering.

HUDCO has initiated dialogue with some educational trusts for setting up full fledged Habitat Schools which will provide for the entire range of instructions from graduate studies to construction skills. The response has been encouraging. HUDCO has engaged a group of professionals to develop the curricula for such Habitat Schools.

Notes on meeting of 23rd July 1986 at Sammelan Kaksha, HUDCO :

Notes on meeting of 23rd July 1986 at Sammelan Kaksha, HUDCO

  1. Built Space to Enable Start of Architecture Course by IST Oct. 86
  • Space should be acquired for minimum of 2 years requirement – say 5000 sq. ft.
  • Central accessible location essential in view of role envisaged for the school.
  • INTACH is ready to provide Rs. 2.4 lakhs for rental over 2 years.
  • Survey of VHAI, Institutional areas at Lodi Estate and Rouse Avenue, Shri Ram centre, to be carried out over the next 10 days.
  • Mr. Bhalla to consult L.C. regarding possibility of using College of Art premises on a temporary basis.
  • General opinion was that if 1st Oct. is important then a lease agreement with private/autonomous body is more feasible than an arrangement though Govt. agencies.
  • Otherwise space is available in a number of locations for which investigations could be made.
  • I.P. Stadium, Nehru Stadium, hutments in various areas, Asiad Village, College of Art.
  • HUDCO would investigate possibility of purchasing two flats at Asiad Village for renting cut to GREHA.

Land for Permanent Location of School

  • Application to be made to DDA for institutional land in a central location.
  • Approx 100 acres are available in Ghaziabad with the Ministry of Urban Development – application may be made for land, close to the Administrative Staff Training College.

Finance

  • Running expenses for first semester are approx Rs. 4.0 lakhs.
  • Approximately Rs. 10-12 lakhs per annum would be the running costs for first two years.
  • INTACH has offered Rs. 2.4 lakhs over two years.
  • Applications have been made to Hinduja Foundation and Inlaks.
  • Funding sources may be many – Foundations, Govt. Institutions, construction industry and donation/subscription from professionals etc. Each has its potential as well as implications for the running of the school.
  • Long-term funding needs ‘professional’ planning. Mr. Martand Singh will suggest the right person for the task.
  • In the context of overwhelming demand for additional schools of architecture it was suggested that the Council of Architecture could initiate setting up and financing architecture schools.
  • Contradictions regarding funding:
  1. Once an institution starts functioning it is easier for funds to be solicited.
  2. It would be irresponsible to make commitments to students without an assured financial support for at least the first two years – Say Rs. 20 lakhs.

Industry, Institutions would be prepared to support school by way of sponsorship of students and paying faculty costs etc. but such programmes would be required to fulfil specific training needs of these institutions. This suggests special or post graduate training courses rather than an undergraduate course.

New School of Design
Meeting at Sammelan Kaksha – 23rd July 1986
Present: K.L. Nadir, Ritu Menon, Rupen Majumdar, Kamma Batra, A.P. Kanvinde, Mahendra Raj, Raj Rewal, Ranjit Sabhiki, B.B. Chaudhry, Dharmendra Deo, Ramu Katakam, J.R. Bhalla, Santhosh Sharma, Mulkh Raj, Ashish Ganju, Ashok Lall, Ali Bacquer, Martand Singh, V. Sidharth

Employment Potential

The architectural profession is subject to a rapidly changing scenario at all levels. In this respect the architectural profession is not in a unique position amongst the professions as a whole. The speed and complexity of the development process at the national level has evoke a variety of new challenges and requirements. As the profession gears itself to face the challenges and meet the new requirements, it must first build up its own cadre of skilled workers.

As result, a very serious demand for appropriately trained architects has surfaced within the profession. Architects are needed at all levels of the development process. The greatest potential for employment still remains with the public sector, government agencies as well as public sector corporations. However, the private sector is increasingly finding an expanding role in development works, both at the formal and informal levels, thus generating a very large employment potential for appropriately trained architects.

Since the conditions obtaining in our country are often similar to conditions in many other third world countries, it is anticipated that the course would attract students from these other countries, and the products of this school would find a productive and prominent place in the profession all over the third world.

Course Objectives

The course of architectural study will develop a basic grounding in fundamental and timeless principles of architecture, which emerge out of a philosophic, cultural, and scientific value frame, and will further focus on three major areas:

  • The development of awareness of techno-cultural factors which determine the limits of the architectural problem.
  • The comprehension and anticipation of the institutional forces which define the ground on which executive decisions can be framed, and
  • The scientific and technical expertise required for the design and management of building projects.

Within these broad parameters the details of courses of study will be organised to provide:

  1. A five-year full time course, leading to a Bachelors Degree in Architecture.
  2. Short duration part-time refresher courses for professional re-training in various specialisations.
  3. Two-year full time postgraduate courses in specialised areas, leading to a Masters Degree in Architecture.

Entering Behaviours

  1. For the five-year degree course, candidates to be admitted shall have a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate, having passed the 10 + 2 examination of the Senior School Certificate Examination Scheme, with Mathematics and English as subjects of examinations at the 10 + 2 level.All candidates for the above course shall be selected on the basis of a specially designed competitive examination which will include an aptitude test. There shall also be an interview for the candidates successful in the competitive examination before the final selection is made.
  2. For the part-time Technical courses, the candidates will be selected on the basis of depth interviews and detailed examination of technical service record.
  3. For the post-graduate courses, the candidates will be selected on the basis of specially designed competitive examinations as well as depth interviews of the candi dates successful in the competitive examination.
    The intake of students at the first year level of the Degree course shall not exceed for each a maximum of 30 in a class. For the Certificate courses and the postgraduate courses the intake shall not exceed for each a maximum of 15 in a class.
    Students will be permitted, at the discretion of the school authorities, to migrate from one recognised institution to another, subject to the maximum number of students not exceeding the permitted maximum intake in a class.

Activities/Analysis of Tasks-knowledge, skills, attitudes/traits.

In order to satisfy the wide range of employment potential, and to meet the complex requirements of the development of the profession as a whole, the tasks for which the students are to be equipped would need to be diverse.

The knowledges base which must essentially be developed in the student would start with a grounding in philosophy (aesthetics and ethics within an environmental perspective) consistent with the traditions, indigenous technologies, and social and economic needs of the people, especially the poor in rural and urban areas.

The skills to be developed would focus on the language of architecture, starting with basic communication skills including drawing, graphics, audio-visual techniques, mapping of various kinds, and technical paper writing and presentation. These skills would be built up around the core of studies comprising history and theory of architecture, architectural design, theory and design of structures and building services, and essential principles of human settlements including ecological planning, landscape design and the processes of urbanisation. Skill formation would be supplemented by explorations and development of the craft of building through workshop exercises as well as fieldwork research with the building industry.

The formation of appropriate attitudes and traits would be fostered by developing the students' capacity for self-awareness, leading to a reinforcement of basic human skills of expression and communication, and consolidating the students comprehension of his/her place and rule in the profession and in society.  

Duration and Stages of the course

  1. The architecture degree course shall be of a minimum duration of 5 academic years or 10 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each, inclusive of six months/one semester of approximately 16 working weeks of practical training (after the first stage) in a professional office. The course shall be conducted in two stages—the first 3 academic years/6 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each of the course shall be a basic standard course and will constitute the first stage. Candidates admitted to the course shall have to complete the first stage within 5 years of admission to the course. The second stage of the course shall be of 2 academic years/4 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each. The successful completion of both stage of the course shall qualify candidates for registration under the Architects Act, 1972.
  2. The short duration professional retraining courses shall be of variable duration according to specific needs.
  3. The postgraduate masters courses shall be of a minimum duration of 1½ years/3 semesters of approximately 16 working weeks each. The detailed design of these courses is to be taken up later.

Curriculum Design/Course Content/Subjects of Study:

Stage I – Basic Course. Subjects of Examination Minimum No. of periods of 50 to 60 minutes duration

  1. Architectural Design [ 800 ]
    Applying the knowledge gained in other subjects and to design buildings of medium complexity e.g. Schools, Colleges, Dispensaries, Shops and Houses, etc. and present them in graphic form.
  2. Building Construction [ 400 ]
    Knowledge of various methods of building construction of medium complexity with timber, stone, bricks, concrete etc. including foundation, walls, roofs, staircase, joinery and finishes.
  3. Building Materials and Sciences [ 120 ]
    Knowledge of basic building materials and their behaviour such as bricks, stones, metals and timber and finishing materials, effects of climate on built environment to be able to design for comfortable conditions.
  4. Architectural Drawing and Graphics [ 360 ]
    Ability to present in graphic form all elements of design—study of shades and shadows, textures, tones, colours, geometrical form, perspectives and projections, free hand drawing and rendering.
  5. History of Architecture [ 180 ]
    Study of various styles of Architecture and methods of construction through the ages in the world with emphasis on Indian Architecture.
  6. Workshop Practice [120 ]
    Ability to make building models with various materials such as cardboard, wood, plastics, plaster of Paris and metals.
    Ability to make simple joints in timber, pipes and other materials.
  7. Landscape Design [ 90 ]
    Understanding of Landscape elements like trees, shrubs, plants, water, rocks and development of landscapes planning and application in architectural design.
  8. Structural Mechanics and Theory of Structures [ 300 ]
    Understanding the structural concepts and behaviour of structural elements, simple calculations for columns, beams, frames, footings, slabs, walls in concrete, steel, timber.
  9. Surveying and Levelling [ 60 ]
    Understanding of various survey and levelling instruments, carrying out surveys of land of medium complexity and preparation of survey plans.
  10. Building Services & Equipment [ 150 ]
    Study of and designing for water supply, drainage, sewage disposal, electricity supply, wiring and lighting for buildings.
  11. Humanities [ 120 ]
    Study of sociology, economics and anthropology, as applicable for design of human settlements.
  12. Estimating and Costing [ 60 ]
    Systems of taking out quantities and estimating for all traces involved in construction of medium complexity.
  13. Principles of Human Settlements [120 ]
    Man and environment biological and behavioural responses to human settlements; design for living, natural and built-environment. Ancient texts and treatises on settlement and area planning in India. Human settlements during ancient medieval and modern periods in India, Europe and other parts of the world.

Stage II: Subjects of Examination Minimum No. of periods of 50 to 60 minutes duration.

Brief Description of the Subjects Listed in the Second stage of the Course.

  1. Architectural Design, Planning and Thesis [ 650 ]
    Design of complex buildings and campuses involving analytical studies of buildings and spaces from sociological, economic and cultural points of view such a Universities,
    Industrial Estates, Housing Schemes etc. Thesis on a subject requiring detailed analytical study to lay down validity and design criteria presented in graphic form, models and report. Thesis may also be on research projects presented as a written report.
  2. Building Construction, Materials and Specifications [ 250 ]
    Study of advanced building construction methods with new materials such as plastics, metals, synthetic boards and latest techniques in the use of concrete.
  3. Building Sciences & Services [ 120 ]
    Study of Acoustics, Air-Conditioning, Heating, Cooling, Mechanical installations,
    Fire-Control, water supply and drainage system for complex buildings.
  4. Human Settlements (Theory) [ 120 ]
    An advanced course on Human Settlements principles and theory as they have evolved through the ages.

Professional Practice[ 90 ]

  1. The examination in professional practice in design to assess the knowledge, skill and maturity which fit the architect to fulfil his professional duties and his understanding of the management of office organisation and building contracts. The syllabus should cover the following areas of study:
    •  General principles of Indian Contract Act; Building Contracts generally, conditions and forms of contract, administration of contracts, Principles of arbitration, Indian Arbitration Act, 1940, Valuation of properties, architectural competitions; Easements of properties; Report writing;
    • Codes of Practice; Conditions of Engagement; duties and responsibilities of an architect in relation to owner, contractor, related professional and public; Indian Standards & Codes of Practice. (Planning and Building Legislation etc. has been omitted because this is covered under Building Bye-laws—item 6).
  2. Building Bye-laws [ 15 ]
    Study of building regulations to enable to design and prepare drawings for submission to concerned bodies.
  3. Structural Systems [ 45 ]
    Principles and theory of structural design and study of structural technology such as space frames, pre-stressing, shells and understanding of the limitations and scope of these techniques. Calculations for these techniques are not expected.
  4. Electives such as[ 150 ]
    Intensive study of one or more of the subjects offered as electives depending upon the expertise available to an institution. The list of the subjects may be enlarged but they shall be related to Architecture, such as Housing, Urban Design, Interior Design, Building Management, Landscape Design and Urban Planning.

Teaching Methodology

The teaching of architecture has always been an extension of the apprenticeship model. Thus the students shall receive the major part of their training in the design studio. This would be reinforced by lectures, tutorials, seminars, educational tours, and visits to place of architectural interest.

Resources

The architecture school shall be part of the Delhi School of Design, and shall share space as well as facilities with the mother institution while maintaining its own distinct identity.

  1. Space—the building for the school shall have a floor area of 15 sq. m. per student. This will include classrooms and one studio per year of the course, space, for faculty members, specialised library, workshop, materials museum, art studio, audio-visual laboratory, experimental building yard, exhibition space, seminar/conference rooms, office accommodation, and lounges for students and staff. Residential accommodation, having a floor area of 10 sq. m. per student, shall be provided for at least 50% of the students, in equal proportions for males and females.
    The general library and facilities for extra-curricular activities and sports shall be common with the mother institution.
  2. Equipment—furniture shall be provided in the building, including specialised items like drawing tables and lockers in the studios. The technical equipment in the workshop, laboratory and the experimental building yard shall also be provided especially to include craft tools for woodwork and metal work, still camera, film developing and printing equipment, video equipment, photo-copying machine and duplicating equipment, simple computing equipment, and other specialised requirements of the architecture school.
    For highly specialised equipment for materials testing, sophisticated computer hardware and software an arrangement shall be made with the Indian Institute of Technology and other institutions for sharing their facilities.
  3. Industrial material—this will be required, but in small quantities, for experimental building and for workshop practice.
    The library, workshop, laboratory, and experimental building yard shall be managed by professionally trained and qualified staff, with adequate supporting staff, to assist the students and faculty members in their academic programmes.

Faculty

The school shall have a staff structure consisting of the following:

  1. Principal Head of Department and Professors, Asst. Professors/Readers and Lecturers in the ratio of 1: 2: 2.
  2. The school shall recruit qualified persons in the field of Engineering/Qty. Surveying/Art/ Humanities depending on the actual requirements against the total sanctioned strength.
  3. The equivalent qualification shall mean any such qualification as recognised by the Council of Architecture for registration as an architect under section 25 of the Architects Act, 1972

The architecture school shall maintain a teacher/student ratio of 1: 8; that is, it shall have minimum number of 12 faculty members for a student strength of 100.

The school shall encourage the faculty members to involve themselves in professional practice, including research and development work/community work.

The school shall encourage exchange of faculty members with other institutions of similar nature, in order to improve and enrich its academic programmes. The school shall have the faculty pattern as prescribed by the Council of Architecture, as shown in the statement below:

  1. Lecturer
    Rs. 700-40-1100-50-1600
    Qualifications:
    Bachelor’s Degree in Architecture or equivalent plus two years of relevant
    professional experience.
    OR
    Master’s Degree in Architecture or equivalent and one year relevant professional experience. If a candidate does not possess a Master’s Degree in Architecture and professional experience or a person possessing such experience is not found suitable, the person appointed will be required to obtain the desired professional experience within a period of five years on his appointment failing which he will not be able to earn future increment unit until he fulfils this requirement.
  2. Reader/Asst. Professor
    Rs. 1200-50-1300-60-1900
    Qualifications:
    B. Arch. or equivalent with 7 years experience in Teaching/Research/Professional Work.
    OR
    M. Arch. or equivalent with 5 years experience in Teaching/Professional Work.
  3. Professor
    Rs. 1500-60-1800- 2000-125/2-2500
    Qualifications:
    B. Arch. or equivalent with 10 years of experience in Teaching/Research Work. Experience of guiding research.
    OR
    M. Arch. or equivalent with 8 years experience in Teaching/Research/Professional work.
  4. Principal/Head of Department
    Rs. 1500-60-1800-200- 125/2-2500
    Qualifications:
    B. Arch. or equivalent with 10 years experience in Teaching/Research/plus special pay Professional work. Experience of guiding research.
    OR
    M. Arch. or equivalent with 8 years of experience in Teaching/Research/Professional work.
  5. The school shall appoint Professor of Eminence.
  6. One third of the teaching load shall be allotted to the visiting faculty so that the students are brought in closer contact with the persons actively engaged in practice.

Evaluation

  1. Initially the norms laid down by the council of Architecture (Incorporated under the Architects Act, 1972) in its “Regulations on Undergraduate Architectural Education” shall be adopted, subject to the approval of the University of Delhi.

    These norms are:

    •   The University of Delhi, or an independent examining body approved by it, shall conduct the examinations at the end of each stage.
    •   The sessional work shall, as far as possible, be assessed by a jury of internal and external examiners.
    •   The weightage of marks for subjects having both class work marks as well as examination marks may not exceed the ratio of 50: 50.
    •   The pass percentage shall not be less that 45% in each subject and shall not be less than 50% in the aggregate.
    •   Candidates who have passed in the internal assessment, shall only be permitted to undertake an examination.
    •   An examiner for any of the subjects of examination shall have a minimum of 3 years teaching/professional experience in his/her field of study.
  2. There shall also be established a cell for curriculum and Evaluation System Development, which will design the pedagogic package specific to the needs of the profession in the context of the larger developmental perspective.

Integration of Allied Courses

Since the architecture school will be a part of the Delhi School of Design which will be running allied courses such as interior design, textile design, fashion design, graphic, and communications media, etc. there will be in-house integration of allied courses.

Furthermore the cell for Curriculum and Evaluation Systems Development shall establish ways and means of integrating allied courses in other institutions in Delhi and the rest of the country, as well as in appropriate institutions in other parts of the world.

Implementation of the Course

  1. Academic

    The school shall start its first year programme on an experimental basis to admit a maximum of 20 students in January 1986.

    By July 1986, the proper first year course shall be started with maximum of 30 students. Every subsequent year a class of maximum 30 students shall be admitted. By July 1990, the undergraduate course shall have a maximum of 150 students (20 students of the experimental first class having passed out in January 1990), with an additional maximum number of 50 students in the post-graduate courses and part-time courses. Thus the maximum student strength of the school in July 1990 shall be 200.

    The staff strength shall be built up progressively, as per the norm prescribed in item 9 (Faculty), and in relation to the student intake described above. Thus in July 1990 the maximum Staff strength shall be 25.

    Necessary support staff, both technical and administrative, shall also be progressively built up as the student strength increases.

  2. Financial

    As per the standards laid down in item 8 (Resources), the preliminary calculation of financial requirements works out as follows:
    (financial requirements omitted from this transcription)

  3. Administration

    The Chairman of the Vocational Education Society shall be the ex-officio Director of the Delhi School of Design.

    The architecture school forming part of the Delhi School of Design shall be run by the Principal who will be a full-time Professor of Architecture. The Principal shall set up the school with the help of appropriate faculty and supporting staff as per the norms, as well as standards laid down in the preceding items which are based on the “Regulations on Undergraduate Architectural Education” of the Council of Architecture (incorporated under the Architects Act, 1972.

GREHA “Habitat Schools” Curriculum ,1990: at the TVB School of Habitat Studies

Formal outcome of the HUDCO-GREHA Proposal for Restructuring Technical Education to meet the requirements of Human Settlements, designed to restructure Architectural Education which would have "provide(ed) Bachelors Courses in Habitat Planning, Habitat Management and Architecture, three year Diploma Course in Habitat Engineering and training in building skills with special emphasis on social aspects, low cost technologies and extension methods will promote a hierarchy of skills required for facilitating housing and human settlement development in a desirable manner."

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